October is a delightful month: with its crisp weather, fall foliage, ripened fruit, the World Series, and of course Christmas decorations everywhere as part of the ubiquitous War On Christmas. But lest we forget, there is another holiday that used to take precedence in October. No, besides Columbus Day. And while it’s fun to attend “haunted attractions” and see all the black and orange, and the trick-or-treaters in costume, we mustn’t lose sight of the very grim history behind those caricatures of pointy-hatted witches. Accusations of “devil worship” have cost many people their lives in horrible ways in the past; and they have even been leveled against innocent individuals in our own supposedly more enlightened age.
The kind of misinformation that led to those horrors persists today. And there are even widespread misconceptions about the history of the whole bloody mess of accusing and trying “witches”. So while we’re waiting for a more substantial blog post to pop out of the oven, let’s briefly look at some of the most common misconceptions about witch trials:
1. Millions of people were tried as witches in Europe
As you may be aware, hyperbole is often involved when people look back on sensationalist events and trends of the past. The number of gunfights in the American West, for instance, has been greatly exaggerated — after all, they make good cinema and pulp fiction. And though the Crusades were undeniably bloody, the tally of victims has greatly expanded in the retelling. The same is true of witch trials. Historians estimate the actual number of persons executed as witches in Europe to be somewhere between 40,000 and 100,000. (The actual number of documented executions for witchcraft is about 12,000). Some estimates run as high as 200,000. Those are certainly horrifying numbers, but a far cry from “millions”.
2. Witch trials were very common in the Middle Ages
They were actually quite rare. While the “Dark Ages” (which weren’t quite as dark as many people suppose — but that’s another discussion) were notoriously brutal toward (suspected) offenders of all stripes, alleged witches were generally not among them. The “golden age” of witch trials didn’t really begin until the Fifteenth Century (about the time of Joan of Arc), which was well past the generally agreed upon imaginary demarcation point between Medieval and Renaissance. The last known witch trial in Europe was in Poland in 1783. In America, the last known trial was 1833 in Tennessee.
During the Middle Ages, however, people certainly were tortured and horrifically executed for the offense of “heresy”, which might be thought of as witchcraft in another robe — both involve doing/ believing/ thinking things that conflict with official religious doctrine. Indeed, Pope John XII officially decreed that the two go hand in hand — that witchcraft, in effect, is a form of heresy. That was not until the early Fourteenth Century, which was at the tail end of the Medieval era, but still it is likely because of this identification between heresy and witchcraft that many people today have such a grim and distorted view of persecution for “witchcraft” in the Middle Ages.
3. The church was behind it
Not necessarily. It’s complicated. During the Middle Ages, church authorities tended to look upon witchcraft as superstitious nonsense. In fact, in the year 906 the church actually declared it heresy to believe in witchcraft. It did a total about face in 1484, however, when Pope Innocent VIII decreed it heretical not to believe in witches.
What religion has always done, however, is provide the ideological framework within which such persecution took place. Fundamentalist zealots can point to several biblical passages that condemn witches (e.g. Deuteronomy 18: 11-12) and apparently even call for their murder. (Exodus 22: 18 : “Do not allow a sorceress to live.”)
4. Burning people at the stake meant setting them on fire
Usually nothing so merciful as that, alas. What would happen quite often is that the victim would be tied to a stake within a ring of fire and slowly roasted alive. The lucky ones might die of smoke inhalation. Incidentally, even individuals who were already dead could be “executed” by burning. The body of John Wycliffe was exhumed and burned 30 years after his death.
5. Suspected witches were burned at the stake in America
Never happened. The preferred method of execution on this side of the pond was by hanging. In Salem, 19 people were hanged and one was pressed to death with stones.
The myths and lore surrounding historical events like witch trials are a boon to the imagination, and to galvanizing emotional response to certain ideals. They are a convenient shorthand for the collective memory; we speak of “Salem witch trials”, even though trials also took place in Andover and Ipswich, and in fact the whole witch mania actually got started in Salem Village, which is now called Danvers. Referring to all of them as just “Salem witch trials” is all well and good in pop culture — just as it’s fun to read Longfellow’s poem about Paul Revere even though it’s mostly bullshit, and Revere is mostly just famous because his name rhymes with so many words. But when it comes to having a serious discussion about history, there’s no substitute for getting the facts straight.
Very interesting. I learned a thing or two from this.
Let’s face it, most Americans can’t tell you the difference between the Middle Ages & the Renaissance.
This is a great informative post which clears up many falsehoods which have been routinely circulated about those accused of Witchcraft. And I did actually think it happened more often in the Middle ages.
So when we hear about the “spanish Inquisition,” which became the brunt of bizarre humor on the Monty Python show, did that humor concern itself primarilly with the terror spread by the Church in Spain and portugal? Please don’t laugh if I am too uninformed and naive–I don’t think the answers to questions like that are often widely known. But if so, didn’t the Spanish Inquisition also take place near the beginning of the renaissance? I know that many scientists were accused of blasphemy (or something like it) and were sometimes tortured in very cruel and sadistics ways to force them to publicly disavow any facts that challenged false and fundamentalist views in the Bible. Apparently, during these centuries there was nothing even close to the cruelty that took place at the hands of the Catholic Church and its ruthless connections to Kings and politicians of those times. Instead, the hate crimes and persecution of “heretics” compares very well with the cruelty and violence which took place during many genocidal attacks which happened during the 20th century!
The gory facts about how one was “burned at the stake:” is especially gruesome and represents the length that human beings will go to hurt and kill their own species when motivated by superstitions and fear. Still, Jesus taught nothing like this and denounced violence in all its forms. So rather than condemning all religious faiths or the people in them, I feel way more comfortable condemning the very human actors among them who sought to spread horrific atrocities in the name of Christ!
I also thought that, way more innocent setters were hung as witches than only 19. But that’s all for now. Thanks for another informative article which reveals the facts behind such glarilng misconceptions!
“more innocent setters.”No not Irish Setters either.I must have meant to use the word, “settlers?”